Engineers Program Human Cells to Record Analog Memories

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MIT biological engineers have devised a memory storage system illustrated here as a DNA-embedded meter that is recording the activity of a signaling pathway in a human cell. (Image courtesy of MIT. )

A team of biological engineers has devised a way to record complex histories in the DNA of human cells, allowing them to retrieve “ reminiscences ” of prior events, such as inflammation, by sequencing the DNA.

This analog memory storage system – the first that may record the duration and/or intensity of events in human cells – may possibly also help scientists study how cells differentiate into various tissues during embryonic growth, how cells experience environmental conditions, and how they undergo genetic changes that result in disease.

“To enable a deeper knowledge of biology, we engineered individual cells that can report by themselves history based on genetically encoded recorders, ” said Timothy Lu, an MIT associate professor of electrical engineering and computer science, and of biological engineering. This technology should offer you insights into how gene regulation and other events within cells contribute to disease and development, he added.

Analog Memory:

Many scientists, including Lu, have devised ways to record digital information in living cells. Using enzymes called recombinases, they program cells to flip sections of their DNA when a particular event occurs, such as exposure to a particular chemical. However , that method reveals only whether the event occurred, not how much publicity there was or just how long it lasted.

Lu along with other researchers have previously devised methods to record that type or sort of analog information in bacteria, but until now, it’s been achieved by no-one in human cells.

The new MIT approach is founded on the genome-editing system referred to as CRISPR, which includes a DNA-cutting enzyme called Cas9 and a brief RNA strand that guides the enzyme to a particular section of the genome, directing Cas9 where you can make its cut.

CRISPR can be used for gene editing widely, but the MIT team made a decision to adapt it for memory storage. In bacteria, where CRISPR originally evolved, the system records past viral infections so that cells can recognize and fight off invading viruses.

“We wanted to adapt the CRISPR system to store information in the human genome, ” said Perli.

When using CRISPR to edit genes, researchers create RNA manual strands that match a target sequence in the host organism’s genome. To encode reminiscences, the MIT team took a different approach: They designed guide strands that identify the DNA that encodes the very same guide strand, producing what they call “self-targeting lead RNA. ”

Led by this self-targeting direct RNA strand, Cas9 cuts the DNA encoding the direct strand, generating the mutation that becomes a long lasting record of the function. That DNA sequence, as soon as mutated, generates a new information strand that directs Cas9 to the recently mutated DNA RNA, allowing further mutations to build up provided that Cas9 is energetic or the self-targeting information RNA is expressed.

By using sensors for particular biological events to modify Cas9 or self-targeting information RNA activity, this technique enables progressive mutations that accumulate as a function of these biological inputs, thus providing genomically encoded memory space .

For example , the experts engineered a gene circuit that only expresses Cas9 in the presence of a target molecule, such as TNF-alpha, which is produced by immune tissues during inflammation. Whenever TNF- alpha is present, Cas9 cuts the DNA encoding the guideline sequence, generating mutations. The more time the exposure to TNF-alpha or the greater the TNF-alpha concentration, the more mutations accumulate in the DNA sequence.

By sequencing the DNA later on, researchers can regulate how much exposure there was.

“ This is actually the rich analog behavior that people are looking for, where, as you raise the duration or quantity of TNF-alpha, you get increases in the quantity of mutations, ” said Perli.

“Moreover, we wished to test our bodies in living animals. Having the ability to record and extract details from live tissue in mice might help answer meaningful biological queries, ” Cui said. The scientists showed that the machine is with the capacity of recording inflammation in mice.

Most of the mutations result in deletion of section of the DNA sequence, so the researchers designed their RNA guideline strands to be longer than the usual 20 nucleotides, so they won’t become too short to function. Sequences of 40 nucleotides are more than long enough to record for a complete month, and the researchers also have designed 70-nucleotide sequences that may be utilized to record biological indicators for even longer.

Tracking Development and Disease:

The researchers also showed they could engineer tissue to detect and record several input, by producing several self-targeting RNA information strands in exactly the same cell. Each RNA information is associated with a specific insight and is produced when that input exists. In this study, the researchers showed they could record the presence of both the antibiotic doxycycline and a molecule known as IPTG.

Currently this method is most likely to be used for studies of human cells, tissues, or engineered organs, the researchers say. By programming tissues to record multiple events, scientists could use this system to monitor inflammation or illness, or to monitor cancer progression. It could also be useful for tracing how tissues specialize into different tissues during development of creatures from embryos to adults.

“With this technology you could have different memory registers which are recording exposures to different signals, and you also could see that all of those signals was received by the cell because of this passage of time or at that intensity, ” Perli said. “That real method you could get nearer to understanding what’s taking place in development. ”

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NASA Competition to Develop Dexterous Humanoid Robots for Mars

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NASA’s Robonaut, R5. (Image courtesy of NASA. )

NASA and global consultancy company NineSigma have announced the start of a competitors to “develop humanoid robots to greatly help astronauts on Mars. ”

The million dollar competition, named the area Robotics Challenge aptly, aims to produce a framework for a humanoid robot that’s flexible, dexterous and will withstand the brutal Martian conditions.

To collect the $1M prize, teams will be required to program a new virtual robot modeled after NASA’s Robonaut R5. The computer programs compiled by participants will have to guide the R5 by way of a series of tasks and also achieve this with a forced latency time period imposed on communication between plan and robot.

NASA says this latency represents enough time it could take for instructions to end up being sent from World to Mars-approximately 20 minutes typically, depending on the length between the two planets.

While NASA’s smart latency trap shouldn’t end up being a huge stumbling block for programmers, the obstacles that they’ll have to face might be a bit of challenge. NASA’s vision for the challenge is a horrific one.

Each participant will be asked to guide their virtual R5 through a Martian hellscape where a dust storm has just damaged a habitat (no word on whether astronauts were inside, or if any of them survived). Surveying the damage, the R5 will have to align an off-kilter communications dish, repair a damaged solar array and fix the habitat’s breached hull.

“Precise and dexterous robotics, able to work with a communications delay, could be used in spaceflight and floor missions to Mars and elsewhere for hazardous and complicated jobs, which will be essential to support our astronauts, ” said Monsi Roman, program manager of NASA’s Centennial Challenges.

According to NASA, the advancement of flexible, dexterous robotic technologies will be critical for sustaining human lifestyle off world. In fact , engineers at the agency are already thinking of ways to deploy these bots, including sending them to the red planet to select landing sites, set up habitats, construct life-support systems and possibly even conduct scientific missions.

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Flexible Concrete Won’t Crack Under Pressure

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(Image thanks to Nanyang Technological University. )

The ancient building materials concrete gets a performance boost because of a clever reformulation.

Sand, water, gravel and cement. Those are the things that make up concrete, probably the most ubiquitous building components on earth. Since its invention millennia back concrete has served because the foundation for structures, roadways and all types of infrastructure. Although it’s a good material, it can have its flaws. Specifically, concrete is brittle and can crack under pressure.

For two thousand decades that’s been concrete’s Achilles’ heel. But things may be changing.

In accordance with Nanyang Technological University (NTU) professor Chi Jian, “We created a fresh type of concrete that may reduce the thickness and body weight of precast pavement slabs greatly, hence enabling speedy plug-and-play installation, where new concrete slabs prepared off-site can easily replace worn out ones. ”

Named ConFlexPave this reformulated concrete holds true to the age old recipe but adds a twist by including polymer microfibers to the cocktail. The introduction of these polymers means that loads which would traditionally cause concrete to crack can be distributed across a larger area of the material, providing ConFlexPave greater resiliency.

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(Image courtesy of Nanyang Technological University. )

“The microfibers, which are thinner than the width of a human being hair, distribute the load across the whole slab” said Assistant professor Yanf En-Hua. “[Thus] resulting in a concrete that is tough as metallic and at least twice as strong as standard concrete under bending. ”

While table-sized slabs of ConFlexPave are actually reliable in laboratory configurations, NTU researchers will continue steadily to scale up the quantity of ConFlexPave they pour to be able to concur that the material will work as expected once it’s released in to the real world.

Though flexible concrete might seem like a mundane technical advance, the impact that it could have got on global infrastructure can’t be overstated. If flexible concrete can broad be poured far and, billions, or even trillions of bucks in infrastructure maintenance could possibly be saved.

What’s more, because versatile concrete could be poured in slimmer layers, less material will be needed to repave roadways, thus saving cash and energy. Concrete building may also be made more proof to cracking beneath the pressure of earthquakes aswell. The list of benefits continues on and on.

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Volvo and Uber Team Up for Self-Driving Cars

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(Image thanks to Volvo. )

Volvo Uber and Vehicles have announced that they can join forces to build up next-generation autonomous cars.

Both companies have signed an agreement to determine a joint project which will develop new base vehicles which will be able to incorporate the most recent developments in autonomous driving technologies, up to fully autonomous driverless cars.

The base vehicles will undoubtedly be manufactured by Volvo and then purchased from Volvo by Uber. Volvo and Uber are contributing a combined USD $300 million to the project.

Both Uber and Volvo will use the same base vehicle for the next stage of their own autonomous car strategies. This will involve Uber adding its own self-developed autonomous driving systems to the Volvo base vehicle. Volvo will use the same base vehicle for the next stage of its own autonomous car strategy, that may involve fully autonomous driving.

The Volvo-Uber project marks a significant step in the automotive business with a car manufacturer joining forces with a new Silicon Valley-based entrant to the car industry, underlining the way in which the global automotive industry is evolving in response to the advent of new technologies. The alliance marks the beginning of what both companies view as a longer term industrial partnership.

The new base vehicle will be developed on Volvo’s fully modular Scalable Product Architecture (SPA). SPA is currently used on Volvo’s XC90 SUV as well as the S90 premium sedan and V90 premium estate.

SPA has been developed as part of Volvo’s $11-billion global industrial transformation program, which started in 2010, and has been prepared from the outset for the latest autonomous drive technologies as well as next generation electrification and connectivity developments.

The development work will be conducted by Volvo engineers and Uber engineers in close collaboration. This project will add to the scalability of the SPA platform to include all needed safety, redundancy and new features required to have autonomous vehicles on the road.

Travis Kalanick, Uber’s chief executive, said: “Over one million individuals die in automobile accidents every year. They are tragedies that self-driving technology might help solve, but we can’t do that on your own. That’s why our partnership with an excellent manufacturer like Volvo is indeed important. By combining the abilities of Volvo and Uber we shall get to the near future faster, together. ”

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New Phononics Research Aims to Change How Sound Waves Behave

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This experimental laser ultrasonic setup in collaborator Nick Boechler’s lab will generate phonons with nature-defying characteristics. ( Picture thanks to Nicholas Boechler. )

For decades, advances in optics and electronic devices have powered progress in information technology, energy and biomedicine. Now researchers are pioneering a new field — phononics, the science of sound — with repercussions potentially just as profound.

“If engineers can get acoustic waves to travel in unnatural ways, as they are starting to do with light waves, the world could look and sound various radically, ” said Pierre Deymier, University of Arizona (UA) professor and mind of materials technology and engineering.

Imagine a wall that enables you to whisper to an individual on the other hand but does not enable you to hear that person. Or perhaps a Band-Aid that images cells through the vibrations it emits. Or perhaps a computer that uses phonons, a kind of particle that carries audio and heat, to store, transport and process information in ways unimaginable with conventional electronics.

“It may sound like weird science, but I believe it is the wave of the future, ” Deymier said.

Breaking the Laws associated with Waves:

In common logic, the idea of reciprocity says that waves, such as for example electromagnetic, gentle and acoustic waves, behave exactly the same no matter their direction of travel. It is a symmetrical process — unless there is a material barrier that breaks that symmetry.

There often is. Light and audio waves lose power when encountering a wall, for example , and may attempt to reverse course. The nine NewLAW projects aim to crack this symmetry of light and sound waves by making them travel in only one direction. So, when encountering a wall, a sound wave might continue around it, or be completely absorbed because of it even.

Other researchers have created superior materials that bend light inside unnatural ways to render elements of an object invisible. Likewise, Deymier’s research may lead to wall space that allow sound to move more easily in a single direction, or objects that stay silent when approaching in one direction.

The Power of Phonons:

Most modern technologies derive from the manipulation of photons and electrons. Deymier is among the pioneers in the emerging self-discipline of phononics, which encompasses several disciplines, like quantum mechanics and physics, materials research engineering and applied mathematics.

He’s got developed specialized phononic crystals, elastic and artificial structures with unusual acoustic wave propagation features, such as the capability to increase the quality of ultrasound imaging with super lenses, or even to process details with sound-based circuits.

For the brand new NSF-funded study, he could be using advanced material, chalcogenide glass, which has mechanical properties that can be dynamically modulated in space and time to break reciprocity and transmit sound in a single direction.

This line of investigation could ultimately result in a vast array of products with peculiar features that could improve noise abatement, ultrasonic imaging and information processing technologies, Deymier said.

“Imagine a computer whose operation relies on processing information transported by sound through non-reciprocal phononic elements instead of electrical diodes, or a medical ultrasonic imaging device with extraordinary resolution. ”

” Working with phonons is incredibly fascinating, ” Deymier said. ” We’re going to change the way people think about sound and are opening an entire new world. ”

Deymier has received $1. 9 million from the National Science Foundation’s Emerging Frontiers within Research and Invention, or EFRI, program to direct a four-year study on manipulating how sound waves behave. His collaborators are usually UA professor of components engineering and research Pierre Lucas and Nicholas Boechler, associate professor of mechanical engineering at the University of Washington.

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Revisiting Technology to Keep Astronauts on Their Feet

If you’ve never watched astronauts tripping over rocks on the moon, you should take the time to do so.

Then consider the danger of a suit puncture occurring while an astronaut trips over rocks on the moon, and it becomes a bit less entertaining and considerably more concerning.

In an effort to help these clumsy walkers and others here on terra firma, researchers at MIT are developing special shoes that could be integrated into a navigation system to help the wearer avoid obstacles to mobility.

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Avoid obstacles by listening to the sole-of your shoes, that is. (Image courtesy Jose-Luis Olivares/MIT. )

This is far from a new concept. Haptic feedback in sneakers ‘s been around for years, but the united group at MIT has had a different approach, heading back to the drawing panel to look for the best way to carry out this sort of technology.

By researching the certain specific areas of the foot which are most sensitive to the opinions motors, Leia Stirling, an associate professor at MIT’s Section of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AeroAstro), whose combined team led the work, took the technology back again to basics.

“A lot of learners in my own lab are considering this question of the way you map wearable sensor details to a visual display, or a tactile display, or an auditory display, in a way that can be understood by a non-expert in sensor technologies, ” said Stirling. “This initial pilot study allowed Alison [Gibson, a graduate student in AeroAstro and first author on the paper] to learn about how she could create a language for that mapping. ”

The research shows that not only are some areas of the foot less receptive to the feedback, but also that individuals had difficulty attending to the stimuli or identifying differences in feedback intensity while distracted.

“Trying to provide people with more information concerning the environment, especially when not merely vision but various other sensory information-auditory in addition to proprioception-is compromised, may be beneficial really, ” said Shirley Rietdyk, a professor of Kinesiology and Wellness at Purdue University who research the neurology and biomechanics of drops.

“From my perspective, [this function could be useful] not merely for astronauts but also for firemen, who’ve well-documented issues interacting with their environment, and for people with compromised sensory systems, such as older adults and people with diseases and disorders. ”

The work could directly apply to other navigation systems for the differently abled, such as MIT’s virtual “guide dog” 3D camera system. This integration and the variety of output methods would allow people at any ability level to navigate as quickly as anyone else.

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Detangling the Complexity of Waves with Acoustic Voxels

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Columbia Engineering researchers were able to control the acoustic response of an object when it is tapped and thereby tag the object acoustically. Given three objects with identical shapes, a smartphone can read the acoustic tags in real time by recording and analyzing the tapping sound and thereby identify each item. (Image thanks to Changxi Zheng/Columbia Engineering. )

A novel solution to simplify the design of acoustic filters has been developed in a collaborative work among engineering experts via simulation methods.

The engineering research team behind this advancement decided to study a fairly simple shape (a hollow cube with holes on a few of its six faces) to be able to enable 3D printing it as their base module. This fresh technique is with the capacity of determining optimum filter styles, which enables the selective reduced amount of sounds at specific frequencies then.

This process has been named “Acoustic Voxels” by its creators. Acoustic Voxels aids in veering away from using trial-and- error iterations in the design of acoustic filters. Instead, this program precomputes the acoustic properties of an item. It also enables the user to simulate the filter with varying properties.

Additionally, the engineering research team behind Acoustic Voxels created a technique for computationally optimizing attachments between filters to experience a desired effect. Acoustic Voxels works 70, 000 times quicker than current algorithms utilized to predict acoustic qualities.

An interesting upshot of Acoustic Voxels was that the group could design acoustic tags into objects that appeared to be the exact exact same as one another. However , when tapped, each item would provide a distinctive sound. Even though frequencies affected demonstrate significant reliance on the form of the cavity often, the exact influence of the form is complex and difficult to understand.

Acoustic Voxels not only sped up and computationally optimized the design process, it also enabled the design of more advanced geometries. Current computational tools are limited to more simplistic shapes.

When waves are transmitted through a cavity, some of them are reflected back and forth. These reflected waves either result in a constructive superposition, which amplifies the audio, or destructive superposition, which muffles the audio. This is one way acoustic filters operate.

Wojciech Matusik, associate professor of electrical engineering and computer technology at the MIT Computer Technology and Artificial Cleverness Laboratory explained the existing state of this study: So far, the method would work for controlling impedance and transmitting loss in discrete frequencies mostly, such as for example in traditional muffler design.

However , the scope of the scholarly study only covered one form of a single material. “Extending our solution to additional materials and shapes can offer a larger palette for much better acoustic filtering control, ” said Matusik.

The engineering research team behind Acoustic Voxels was a mixed, collaborative group. It was composed of members from Disney Research, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Columbia University. This development was supported by the National Science Foundation.

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Transparent Wood Windows are Cooler than Glass

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(Image courtesy of the University of Maryland. )

Engineers have demonstrated that windows made of transparent wood could provide more even and consistent natural illumination and better energy efficiency than glass.

In a paper just published in the journal Advanced Energy Materials, the team, headed by Liangbing Hu of the University of Maryland’s department of materials science and engineering, lay out research showing that their transparent wood provides better thermal insulation and lets in nearly as much light as glass, while eliminating glare and offering uniform and consistent indoor lighting. The findings advance earlier published work on their development of transparent solid wood.

“The transparent wood lets through just a little bit less light than glass, but a complete lot less heat, ” said Tian Li, the direct writer of the new study. ” It is extremely transparent, but still permits a small amount of privacy because it isn’t completely see-through. We furthermore learned that the stations in the wood transmit lighting with wavelengths around the selection of the wavelengths of noticeable light, but that it blocks the wavelengths that carry high temperature mostly, ” said Li.

The team’s findings were derived, partly, from tests on a little model home with a transparent wood panel in the ceiling that the team built. The exams showed that the lighting was more equally distributed around an area with a transparent hardwood roof when compared to a glass roof.

The stations in the wood direct visible lighting straight through the material, but its cell structure bounces the lighting around slightly bit, a property called haze. This means the light does not shine directly into your eyes, making it more comfortable to look at. The team photographed the transparent wood’s cell framework in the University of Maryland’s Advanced Imaging and Microscopy (AIM) Lab.

Transparent wood still has all the cell structures that comprised the original piece of wood. The solid wood is cut against the grain, so that the channels that drew drinking water and nutrition up from the roots lie across the shortest dimension of the screen. The new transparent hardwood uses theses natural channels to guide the sunlight through the solid wood.

As the sun passes over a house with glass windows, the angle at which light shines through the glass changes as the sun moves. With windows or panels made of transparent wood instead of glass, as the sun techniques across the sky, the channels in the wood direct the sunlight in the same way every time.

“This means your cat would not have to get up out of its good patch of sunlight every few minutes and move over, ” Li said. “The sunlight would stay in the same place. Also, the room would be more lighted all the time. ”

Working with transparent wooden is similar to dealing with normal wood, the researchers said. Nevertheless, their transparent wood is water-proof because of its polymer component. It furthermore is a lot less breakable than glass as the cell construction inside resists shattering.

The study team has patented their process to make transparent wood recently. The process begins with bleaching from the hardwood all of the lignin, that is a component in the wood that means it is both strong and brown. The wood is certainly soaked in epoxy, which adds strength back and makes the wood clearer. The team has used small squares of linden real wood about 2 cm x 2 cm, but they have stated that the real wood can be any size.

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New Audi Shock Absorber System Generates Electricity from Kinetic Energy

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(Image thanks to Audi. )

The recuperation of energy plays a significant role in transportation increasingly, including in a car’s suspension. Audi is focusing on a prototype known as “eROT, today ” where electromechanical rotary dampers replace the hydraulic dampers used.

The principle behind eROT is easily described: “Every pothole, every bump, every curve induces kinetic energy in the electric motor car. Today’s dampers absorb this power, which is lost by means of high temperature, ” mentioned Dr . -Ing. Stefan Knirsch, board member for technical growth at AUDI AG. “With the brand new electromechanical damper program in the 48-volt electric system, this energy is put by us to utilize. ”

The eROT system is designed to respond sufficient reason for minimal inertia quickly. As an actively controlled suspension, it adapts to irregularities in the road surface and the driver’s driving style. A damper characteristic that is virtually freely definable via software increases the functional scope.

It eliminates the mutual dependence of the rebound and compression strokes that limits conventional hydraulic dampers. With eROT, Audi configures the compression stroke to be smooth without compromising the taut damping of the rebound stroke.

The eROT system enables a second function besides the freely programmable damper characteristic: It can convert the kinetic energy during compression and rebound into electricity. To do this, a lever arm absorbs the motion of the wheel carrier. The lever arm transmits this pressure via a series of gears to an electric motor, which converts it into electric power.

The recuperation output is 100 to 150 watts normally during testing on German roads – from 3 watts on a freshly paved freeway to 613 watts on a rough secondary road. Under customer driving situations, this corresponds to a CO2 savings as high as three grams per kilometer (4. 8 g/mi).

The new eROT technology is founded on a high-output 48-volt electrical system. As configured currently, its lithium-ion battery provides an energy capacity of 0. 5 kilowatt hours and peak output of 13 kilowatts. A DC converter connects the 48-volt electric subsystem to the 12-volt primary electrical system, with a high-efficiency, enhanced output generator.

Audi reports that preliminary test outcomes for the eROT technology are promising, this means its use in upcoming Audi production models is plausible certainly. A prerequisite for this may be the 48-volt electrical program, a central element of Audi’s electrification strategy.

In the next version prepared for 2017, the 48-volt system will serve because the principal electrical system in a fresh Audi model and feed a high-performance mild hybrid drive. Based on the ongoing company, it shall offer potential gasoline savings as high as 0. 7 liters per 100 kilometers.

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SCUBAJET – A Watersports Jet Engine

When Patrizia Giovanniello became a mother or father she scaled back her water activities on Lake Constance in Switzerland. With her boyfriend and daughter she enjoyed time on the stand up paddleboard (SUP) but was worried about unpredictable weather and currents stranding her family far from shore. Armin, her boyfriend, and his father found a solution to this problem by developing Scubajet, the flexible jet engine for water sports.

Scubajet can connect to stand up paddleboards, small dinghies, canoes, kayaks or divers. The engine can achieve a speed of up to six knots, runs for 1 . 5 hours on a single battery charge, and the campaign page says that the device is completely free of emissions. The engine says that it can run up to 1 . 5 kiloWatts.

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Several adapters are available to connect the Scubajet to boards, dinghies, or kayaks. Starboard, Simmer Style, SIC, JP-Australia, Sevylor, Mistral, RRD, Fanatic, Hobie, Red Paddle Co, and Naish possess all partnered with the business to verify that their current equipment could be installed with a Scubajet. The marketing campaign page says that testing has been done on diving equipment to develop adapters that will give divers some extra propulsion power.

The unit itself is 25 centimeters long, 80 centimeters wide and weighs 2 . 4 kilograms. The system was designed to fit in a backpack when not in use, but videos on the campaign page shows the unit strapped next to an user’s backpack. An auto-shutoff tells the engine to stop right away if the user falls into the water. The Scubajet’s remote gives the ability to start, stop, and change the unit’s speed.

I’m viewing Scubajet with a healthy skepticism. There’s a bit of culture difference in the specifications but I’m much more comfortable knowing an engine’s horsepower than a wattage or max speed callout. The idea of a propulsion program that’s a lot more compact and useful than an outboard engine is great, and the adapter system appears seamless and elegant on all the demonstration gifs on the campaign web page. On September 1 if its €150 the campaign will undoubtedly be funded, 000 goal is met, in December and units will ship, 2016.

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